page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14 page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36
page 37
page 38
page 39
page 40
page 41
page 42
page 43
page 44
page 45
page 46
page 47
page 48
page 49
page 50
page 51
< prev - next > Energy CA_Toolkit PAC SmartFinal (Printable PDF)
electric water pumps for potable water, the daily energy requirement is known and
a system designer can calculate the size of solar panel required.
Figure 2: Typical system components of a SHS: World Bank12
Solar home systems (SHS) are a package designed for households and cottage
industries, and typically comprise of a small solar panel and mounting,
rechargeable batteries for energy storage and battery charge controller. The retail
price of a SHS ranges from about US$100 to US$500 for 10 W to 50 W systems,
respectively.13 The installed cost of electricity from solar PV ranges from US$1.5 –
3.5 per kWh.3 A list of solar suppliers in Africa can be found in Annex 3. Special
training is required for the caretaker of the system. A SHS with a 50W solar panel
in an area with a good solar resource can power four energy efficient lights for up
to five hours a night.
There are a wide range of battery types available, with varying usages,
performance, maintenance requirements and cost.14 There is no such thing as a
universal battery; a single type of battery cannot cover all applications. Batteries
should be well matched to the application to ensure good performance. Some
batteries require regular maintenance to ensure good performance and long life.
Batteries have a life span significantly less than that of solar panels and can be
expensive to replace. The owner or operator should be made aware of the
importance of proper maintenance, trained with maintenance activities, and have
access to maintenance supplies and replacement units.
Portable solar lantern products are the most affordable form of PV lighting available
and currently in widespread use across Southern Asia and East Africa. A number
of models are available that are high quality, durable and relatively low cost. These
products are suitable for mass marketing models that use local retail networks and
can potentially be used to support the development of new micro enterprises where
appropriate. An example of this is the Christian Aid supported ToughStuff pilot
project in Kenya (see the PPE intranet site link below) or the D.light Design.15
Renewable Energy to Reduce Poverty in Africa